What Is an AGO Oil Product or Automatic Gas Oil? Finding Authentic AGO Petroleum Supply/Supplier

A recent survey conducted by this writer on the Internet for a quick, snap shot sense of the subject matter, immediately revealed that there’s a state of relatively scanty knowledge of, or information about, this particular refined petroleum product called the AGO, among international oil dealers and suppliers. In deed, in one rather remarkable instance involving a popular ‘Ask for Answers’ online discussion portal, one reader expressly posited the question, soliciting information from the readers as to what is/was ‘the meaning’ of the petroleum term AGO, among three other refined petroleum products, which he went on to list – DPK, PMS, JET A1. There was just one response – a response that has stood the same for 5 years since. Oddly enough, however, of the 4 oil products that the answerer named, the answerer was exactly accurate in the definition he proffered on three of those. But, on ONLY one of them, the AGO product, the answer given by the answerer was somewhat slightly off, as he gave the definition of the product as meaning ‘Automotive Gas & Oils.’

So, first, we start with this basic question: What is AGO Oil Product, or the Automotive Gas Oil?

What the AGO Oil Product Is

The term AGO, which specifically stands for the Automotive Gas Oil, is the name given to the fuel type that’s used by road vehicles (cars, trucks, buses, vans, and the like) that are powered by DIESEL engines. That is, in a word, it is the diesel vehicle engine fuel. In terms of how the fuel gets to be produced or manufactured, the fuel is the type that, in the distillation and processing of crude oil work, is obtained in the mid-boiling range of that process. Related fuels which are used for non-road applications including off-road diesel engines, such as the Industrial Gas Oils (IGOs), are obtained from the same ‘fraction’ of the crude oil barrel.

Technically speaking, the term Automotive Gas Oil (AGO) is the technical name used by the oil industry in describing this particular fuel. However, in terms of the ordinary consumers in the market, the term ‘automotive diesel fuel,’ or just plain ‘diesel,’ is the more commonly used and more widespread name that the ordinary consumer uses in describing this fuel. Petroleum products are usually grouped into THREE categories: the ‘light distillates’ (LPG, gasoline, naphtha), the ‘middle’ distillates (kerosene, diesel), and the ‘heavy’ distillates and residuum (heavy fuel oil, lubricating oils, wax, asphalt). This classification is based primarily on the way crude oil is distilled and separated into fractions (called distillates and residuum). Within the oil industry, the generic oil industry name that’s used to describe gasoils – which include both AGO and IGO – fall under the ‘Middle Distillates’ category, meaning those kinds of refined oil products whose ‘boiling range’ fall in the MIDDLE, that is, between those whose range fall in the higher levels or in the lower levels. (See the Chart below). As you can readily see in the Chart below, at a Boiling Range of between 520 to 650, the AGO falls right in the middle range of most categories of the refined oil products.

The Market & Primary Uses of the AGO oil Product Among Its Customers

AGO is used in two main types of vehicles: 1) the heavy-duty vehicles, such as trucks and buses, and 2) the light-duty vehicles, such as vans and passenger cars. In most countries, including the USA as well as the developing countries, the heavy-duty vehicles make up the bulk of the market for AGO. In a country such as Japan, there is a significant light-duty vehicle sector, but it is in Europe that the demand for AGO from this sector is highest, with more than one-third coming from the passenger cars and other light vehicles. Customer requirements between the two types of fuel usage differ to some extent. Diesel engines are widely used in heavy-duty vehicles. Such vehicles are frequently operated in fleets and are re-fuelled centrally with the fuel delivered directly from the supplier. In the light-duty vehicle sector, recent advances in engine design now also allow light-duty diesel engines to compete with gasoline engines in terms of the performance standards. Light-duty vehicles are generally re-fuelled through retail outlets. In any case, whether it is in the light-duty sector or in the heavy-duty sector, in both sectors the customer will generally be looking for the fuel that provides economy, power, reliability and environmental acceptability.

Use As Car Fuel

Diesel-powered vehicles, such as AGO-powered vehicles, generally have a better fuel economy than equivalent gasoline engines and produce less greenhouse gas emission. Their greater economy is due to the higher energy per-liter content of diesel fuel and the intrinsic efficiency of the diesel engine. True, petrodiesel’s higher density results in higher greenhouse gas emissions per liter compared to gasoline. However, the modern diesel-engine automobiles have a 20-40% better fuel economy, and this well offsets the higher per-liter emissions of greenhouse gases, while a diesel-powered vehicle emits 10-20 percent less greenhouse gas than comparable gasoline vehicles. Biodiesel-powered diesel engines offer substantially improved emission reductions compared to petrodiesel or gasoline-powered engines, while retaining most of the fuel economy advantages over conventional gasoline-powered automobiles.

How Crude Oil Fractions Are Processed Into Refined Oil Products, Including AGO and Other Products

How do we get to have refined petroleum products, of which a product like AGO is one? Put simply, it is out of the refinery processing (i.e., out of the ‘refining’) of crude oil that many other usable products – products that we generally refer to as refined or finished petroleum products – are produced. Meaning products such as gasoil, gasoline, kerosene, AGO, etc. The process of oil ‘refining’ or processing is a very complex one, and involves both chemical reactions and physical separations. The substance that’s called Crude Oil is composed of thousands of different ‘molecules,’ and according to chemical engineers and molecular experts, it would be nearly impossible to isolate every molecule that exists in crude oil and thereby make finished products from each molecule.

Consequently, the way chemists and engineers deal with this problem, is simply by them isolating the mixtures (also called ‘fractions’) of molecules according to what is known as the mixture’s “boiling point range.” For example, molecules for the gasoline product might boil within the ‘range’ of from 90 to 400 oF. While the range at which the home heating oil product’s molecular mixes could boil might be from 500 to 650 oF, and so on. For purposes of convenience and simplification, each mixture or fraction is assigned a specific name to identify it.

The following chart illustrates the ‘boiling range’ and name of the petroleum fractions.

Fraction

Boiling Range,oF.

Butanes and lighter

<90

Light straight run gasoline (LSR)

or light naphtha (LN)

90-190

Naphtha or heavy naphtha (HN)

190-380

Kerosene

380-520

Distillate or atmospheric gas oil (AGO)

520-650

Residua

650 +

Vacuum gas oil (VGO)

650-1000

Vacuum Residua

1000 +

In sum, refined products are products that are produced by isolating the mixtures or fractions of molecules that come from the raw crude oil, and combining them, along with those from various refinery processing units. These fractions are ‘blended’ or mixed to satisfy specific properties that are important in allowing the refined product to perform in accordance with the specifications or requirements that are designed by or in an engine, in terms of ease in handling, reducing the undesirable emissions produced when the product is burned, etc

FINDING OR OBTAINING A SUPPLY OF THE AGO

Simply stated, the KEY term and task here is finding an authentic AGO oil product supply or supplier. Or an AGO buyer, as the case may be. Why? This is simply because, today, in the international refined oil products trading market, specially in the so-called “secondary” market, probably the single most fundamental and most difficult common problem which legitimate dealers who seek to find reliable suppliers have, is often NOT so much finding a party who will claim heaven and earth that he/she has the AGO oil product to sell and can supply you the product. Or that he can buy one from you, as the case may be. BUT finding such a party who is actually AUTHENTIC & LEGITIMATE, and can actually DELIVER on the product.

MOST PEOPLE WHO SAY THEY’RE SUPPLIERS OF PRODUCT PROVIDE NO VERIFIED OR VERIFIABLE PROOFS OR SOURCES

A well-established reality and a given today, is that in world oil deals involving trading in the crude oil and refined petroleum products, specially in the so-called international “secondary” market, probably the single most fundamental and most difficult common problem which legitimate buyers frequently confront today, is the problem of the genuineness and authenticity of the supplier of product and his ability to deliver on the sales offer he presents. Refined petroleum products, such as AGO, D2, Mazut, Jet fuel, etc., are certainly not immune or exempt from such endemic problem that seems to plague the entire secondary market oil trade industry, but rather are, in deed, right in the middle of it.

It’s a problem whose central source can simply be summed up in one word – namely, that not unlike most persons or entities who claim via the Internet to be oil or petroleum products suppliers or “sellers,” most who claim to be suppliers of AGO, as well (or of similar refined oil products, such as the diesel gasoil or Russian D2, Mazut, Jet fuels, and the like), either provide NO proofs or evidence at all of that, or provide proofs or evidence that are often absolutely meaningless because they’re unverified and unverifiable. That is, for the serious or credible Internet petroleum buyer involved in the world oil deals and seriously intent on finding duly verifiable authentic AGO oil product supply or supplier, there are generally just NO such supply or suppliers of the product in the so-called “secondary” market.

Most such serious or genuine AGO buyers (or suppliers, as well, as the case may be) seeking to find equally genuine AGO suppliers (or sellers seeking buyers, when applicable) in the international secondary market, find that the problem is particularly acute and compounded by the fact that almost all “sellers” (or suppliers), or their brokers or intermediaries, that one meets on the Internet, are essentially unknown, unestablished dealers who lack any name, reputation or identity, or any known location on the planet, and lack any record or history of past performance in doing the business. In consequence, a serious AGO buyer, for example, is often being asked – and actually being realistically expected – to, in effect, merely take “the word” of some dubious, anonymous, unidentified and apparently unidentifiable, phantom “seller” or “supplier” for it, with no credible supporting evidence provided, and no verification or authentication whatsoever of the Internet seller’s offer or claims.

In sum, he’s being asked – and actually being expected – to risk, or, rather, to gamble away, his hard-earned mini-fortune of some hundreds of millions of dollars merely on such a “word.”! This, it should be added, is being expected of the buyer in a business environment and climate that is patently awash in fraud and a network of notorious scammers worldwide!

WHERE TO BUY AGO OIL PRODUCT, HOW DO YOU FIND THE SUPPLIERS?

Clearly, then, if you are a real buyer of product seriously intent on finding authentic diesel AGO oil product supply or suppliers (or those of any similar refined oil products, such as the diesel gasoil or Russian D2, Mazut, Jet fuels, and the like) – meaning one that is duly verified and verifiable – probably the most critical, vital, even life-or-death task for you, is that you had better be sure to develop, in some way or manner, a skilled and effective strategy for finding, vetting, selecting out and authenticated suppliers that can provide you reliable steady supply of the product, and which will be scam-free, assured, and long-lasting.

How?

Quite oddly enough, the answer to that question is actually not that complicated or complex. For our limited purposes here, suffice it simply to just say, that there is, in fact, such a methodology, tool and strategy for doing just that long in practical use in the industry. Long in practical use by knowledgeable, experienced and trained eyes and experts, and the successful traders, in the business. If you are, yourself, in fact a provable legitimate trader or authentic practitioner of the petroleum trade (assuming you are actually one) operating in the secondary market, and are truly serious about finding and securing authentic and reliable AGO oil product supply or supplier, or about finding and securing a buyer of equivalent caliber for the product, as the case may be, that’s actually readily within your reach. There’s just really one crucial proviso, only – namely, PROVIDING that you’re equipped with the requisite knowledge, skill, training, tool, methodology and practical experience, by which to undertake the whole process of doing so.

To be sure, true, in today’s world oil deals of the international secondary market, including sourcing for AGO product, which is largely an Internet-dominated world, and is for the most part prevalently awash in fake dealers and scammers, finding duly verified authentic petroleum or automotive gas oil product supply, suppliers and sellers of such caliber (or buyers, just as well), is not ordinary or commonplace. Nor is it at all an easy task to attain. It is, however, by no means impracticable, nor are such suppliers non-existent. Far, far from it! Quite to the contrary, such suppliers abound. It’s only that you just have to search around for such suppliers (or the legitimate buyers, as well, as the case may be) more diligently and skillfully and in the right places from the right sources, and know precisely how and where. That requires, unavoidably, supreme industry knowledge, skills set, training, know-how, connections, precious time expenditure, and experience.

FOR A FOLLOW UP

YOU WANT TO FOLLOW UP ON HOW TO FIND AUTHENTIC AGO OIL PRODUCT SUPPLY OR SUPPLIERS, OR EVEN BUYERS, THAT ARE ALREADY VERIFIED, CONFIRMED AND VERIFIABLE AND SCAM-FREE? Please see the link provided in the author’s Resource Box below.

Clickbank – 6 Foolproof Steps For Selecting a Profitable Clickbank Product

Searching the Clickbank marketplace for affiliate products that you would like to promote can be incredibly overwhelming when you first start out. There are many categories to search through with many subcategories, each with pages of products to choose from that you could choose to promote. Choosing a Clickbank product that is profitable isn’t really as difficult as you might think when you first examine Clickbank, just so long as you know exactly what to look for when you are examining the products and deciding which one to promote. Just follow these 6 foolproof steps for selecting a great Clickbank product.

1. Choose a Niche

The first thing you need to do is determine in which niche you are going to locate the products you intend to promote. The niche should be something that you have an interest or a general knowledge in, like possibly a hobby or something like that. That way you have your own unique knowledge from your experiences which you can use for marketing the product or products you decide to promote. Once you have determined which niche you are going to promote in, go to the Clickbank Marketplace and locate the category where your niche is and look at the list of products.

2. The Salespage

The first thing you need to look at with these products is the merchant’s salespage for the product you are considering promoting. The first thing you should look at is the layout of the sales letter. Is there a solid, enticing headline that will draw people in and make them want to read the rest of the sales letter? Also, it should have a good body copy that is interesting and to the point. One that will keep people wanting to read the whole sales letter. Also, it should contain strong bullet points that catch the readers attention and outline the benefits of the product. You should also make sure there are testimonials. A lack of testimonials creates a lack of trust in the product, so it probably won’t convert as well as a product that includes testimonials. The product should also have powerful bonuses that make the decision appear to be a no brainer because of their incredible value.

The sales letter should also contain a compelling call to action that encourages the reader to take action (and become a customer). Another great thing would be a time sensitive offer, such as a discount for a short period of time, or a limited number of bonuses. This is a great bonus because it creates a sense of urgency so people are rushed to make a decision before they lose the bonuses or the price goes up. This is not a necessity, but it does create a higher conversion rate, so it is definitely something you should look for. The last thing you should look for, although this is also not necessary, is to see if the page has eye- catching graphics. This just makes it look more professional, but it is not necessary. If the product contains everything else, but not very good graphics, it is still most likely a great product.

3. Quality of Product

If you are going to promote a product it is much easier to convince other people that it is a great product if you personally believe it is a great product. Now, this doesn’t mean you should go and buy every product you are considering promoting. Instead, all you have to do is contact the merchant and request a copy of the product or a review copy so that you can better promote their product. If you have a decent track record, most product owners will be happy to hand you a free copy so that you can make more sales. Once you have a copy, try out the product. Discover its good points and its poor points. Determine the overall quality of the product.

If the product is a piece of junk, then obviously you don’t want to promote it. If it is a good quality item, then you can check off #2. Now, if the product owner will not give you a copy and you don’t want to purchase a copy, then just read very carefully through the sales page to get a really good idea about what the product includes and how good it is. Then Google reviews for that product to see what other people have to say about it. If it looks good, then go with it. If you find a lot of bad reviews though, you might want to find a different product.

4. Commission Payouts

You need to check the commission percentage of the product and see if it is worth promoting. You want to be sure that you are going to actually make a profit from your efforts. Generally you do not want to promote a product that pays below $20. Also, I generally tend to stay away from some of the bigger items that pay a couple hundred dollars, because those generally have very high competition, as many people think that they are obviously the most profitable products to promote. (but you will not fall for that, right?)

The trick is to find something somewhere in between the two, something that pays a good amount, but not so much that there is a large amount of competition from other affiliates.

5. Gravity

The gravity shows how well the product is selling. The higher the gravity, the better the product is selling. But beware: higher gravity means that there are probably a lot of people promoting it, meaning you will have a lot of competition, so it may be harder for you personally to get the sales. I tend to try to find products that are above 50, but below 150. An exception would be if a product has just been released, then the gravity might be very low, so if it still meets all the other criteria, then it could still be OK to promote.

6. % Referred

This tells you what percent of the sales the merchant makes are from affiliates. If this is at 90% then it means affiliates are doing well selling this product, but it also means there is probably a lot of competition. Generally you want a percent referred of between 50% and 75-80%. Below that means affiliates aren’t doing well with it, and above that means that affiliates are probably doing too well, and you came too late.

BONUS TIP

If the product you are examining meets all the above criteria, then one more thing you can do to really make sure that it is the perfect product to promote, is to do a couple of Google and Yahoo! searches and find out if anyone is promoting the product you just examined. If there is no one promoting it, then that is a red flag, and you should drop it. (Although if it meets the above criteria that should definitely not happen)

If there are pages and pages of ads from other affiliates, then that is also a red flag. But if there are a few people promoting it, then that means it is profitable, and there is not a ton of competition. A perfect product!

If you simply follow these 6 simple steps, you will be able to pick a winning affiliate product in no time flat! But there is one key component not listed in the six steps. You have made the first step to your success by reading this. Now you have the knowledge, and with that knowledge you now have potential. But in order for you to reach your full potential you need to take action, as you will never achieve anything if you do not take action! Remember, “you reap what you sow”! So please, do not put it off another minute! Take action immediately!

Shawn Horwood

China Suppliers Up Ante on Product Safety

Following a series of tighter consumer protection laws, makers are emphasizing product safety while contending with the high cost of compliance.

Faced with stricter safety regulations in key export destinations, companies in China are allocating more resources to product testing and emphasizing high-quality materials despite the pressure these are putting on manufacturing outlay.

For most suppliers, adopting complicated and far-reaching directives is not the main challenge, but the high expense of compliance is.

Many of the new safety standards require makers to conduct more tests on a greater number of chemical substances. As a result, certification fees for some products have risen by as much as 50 percent, and even doubled in a few cases. CPSIA evaluation for toys, for example, can cost up to $1,000 per model depending on the complexity of the design.

The average toy company now spends $60,000 to $100,000 on examination fees every year. One of the biggest toy makers in China pays more than $2.9 million annually on testing, much higher than the yearly revenue of small suppliers.

Lamp specialist Heshan Mingkeda Industries Co. Ltd spends about $3,000 for SAA certification alone, which takes one or two months to acquire, according to the company’s sales manager Mini Yip.

In many instances, fulfilling safety requirements involves replacing infringing materials with compliant substitutes.

Suppliers of food-grade products, for instance, have already stopped using BPA, an organic compound found in many plastics. In a range of consumer goods, further modifications include the shift from PVC to POE, and from PC to phthalate-free PES, glass and nontoxic silicone.

Battery makers are striving to develop or source safer anode and cathode materials. Some have begun to replace conventional lithium cobalt oxide formulation with lithium iron phosphate, an alternative with lower environmental impact. Other efforts are aimed at improving protection against overcharging, discharging and heating.

But in most instances, “safe” alternatives are costlier than the originals. 3P PVC for instance, is 30 percent more expensive than regular PVC but is 30 percent cheaper than 6P.

Similarly, A5-grade melamine goes for $2,200 per ton, three times as much as the same volume of the A1-grade variant at about $735.

In some cases, imported materials, which invariably cost more, are favored over domestic equivalents. Imported PP, for instance, is 20 to 30 percent higher than domestic versions, at $1,800 to $2,100 per ton. Overseas-sourced organic fabrics, likewise, are 20 to 30 percent more expensive than local variants.

Despite the high outlay, some companies prefer to source abroad for consistent quality. Foshan Geuwa Electric Appliance Co. Ltd sources 80 percent of materials and components for its blenders and juicers overseas, while the rest are purchased locally.

Besides higher raw material expenses, makers have to contend with increases in indirect costs, particularly those related with monitoring the supply chain to ensure that all manufacturing inputs meet specifications.

According to Tim Corrigan, president and CEO of the Quality Assurance Institute, “The root cause of the problem (of product quality) is control of the raw material, application contaminations and subfactories. To fix this requires an overhaul at many factories. The solution calls for significant transparency, diligence and dedication.”

Generally, material vendors are able to offer third-party certification. But for those that cannot do so, companies need to send their own QC staff to supervise the production at the material suppliers’ factories.

More exporters are now limiting their sourcing to suppliers that can provide certified inputs. Still, collection and documentation of every component utilized requires time, effort and money.

In addition to testing and materials quality, manufacturers are also enhancing their in-house QC facilities.

Lai On Products (Industrial) Ltd, a Hong Kong-owned maker of crayons, modeling clay and paint has set up a microbiological laboratory at its factory in Shenzhen, Guangdong province. Certified by the China National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment, the lab is comparable to a chemical-testing facility. The supplier also sends its products to third-party agencies to ensure compliance with ASTM D-4236 and F963, Toxicological Risk Assessment, EN 71, CPSIA, California Proposition 65 and REACH requirements.

Some baby stroller factories are now equipped with wheel performance, dynamic durability and drop-testing facilities. At the same time, many stuffed toys and children’s garments makers are purchasing more needle detectors.

Any measure to comply with safety regulations undoubtedly adds to the cost of production. Suppliers estimate material and certification expenses have risen about 10 percent in recent months. Many companies try to absorb the additional expenditure, but this is not always feasible.

While investment in facilities can be recovered in the long term, the same cannot be said about testing fees. When order quantities are low, as in the current environment, makers are often unable to recover money spent on certification of specific models. Shorter product life cycles due to fast-changing customer preferences also give manufacturers a narrower time frame to recoup compliance outlay.

Some suppliers try to negotiate bigger orders or ask buyers to shoulder the cost for certification. But clients are averse to both options in view of the current economic conditions.

Typically, tier 1 manufacturers are able to comply with regulations more seamlessly due mainly to their stable financial resources.

“Enterprises that cater to major OEM customers likewise have the easiest time adjusting to the new rules as they have better access to information,” said Cody Wang, chemical testing deputy general manager at Intertek. “They are usually able to make the necessary changes months in advance of enforcement deadlines.”

But for small and midsize factories that have less capital to invest in equipment and prohibitive testing fees, conformance can be a daunting task.

Testers can also be partners

The professional testing industry is booming amid the rising safety trend. With the increased need for product evaluation, the past few years have seen an influx and expansion of third-party laboratories in China, including SGS, TUV, BV, Morlab and Pony Test. These organizations also provide free training on the latest regulations, and inform companies on which merchandise needs testing and how.

Regulatory agencies in the US and the EU have likewise been active in helping suppliers get up to speed.

Workshops on the new EU Toy Safety Directive have been organized, with the support of the EU-China Trade Project and the Directorate-General for Enterprise and Industry of the European Commission.

In October 2009, the third CPSC-AQSIQ Summit was held in Wuxi, Jiangsu province. With a theme of “promoting best practices by Chinese manufacturers and US importers to maximize product safety”, the summit was attended by CPSC chair Inez Tenenbaum.

In her keynote address, Tenenbaum reported that in fiscal year 2009, toy recalls went down to 40 from more than 80 in the preceding period. The information exchange between the CPSC and AQSIC about recalls of China-made goods was emphasized, as well as the need for frequent training sessions.

The AQSIQ has been educating China toy makers about safety requirements in the US and on strengthening quality controls. The CPSC has arranged to set up an office at the US embassy in Beijing to help promote compliance with US standards among local suppliers.

Local governments and trade organizations are also vigorously pushing companies to bolster the image of “made in China” products.

At the Canton Fair last fall, the Ministry of Commerce distributed export quality and safety manual to exhibitors.

Organizations such as the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade have been sponsoring seminars for business owners and local government officials on product safety in Southern China.

Regulations getting tougher

The safety bar that China suppliers must hurdle is getting higher by the year as new international and domestic standards are put into place.

In December 2009, the European Chemicals Agency announced the addition of 15 chemicals to its candidate list of substances of very high concern (SVHC) under REACH. Among the inclusions were diisobutyl phthalate, a commonly used plasticizer, and lead chromate, a coloring agent.

REACH has wide-ranging impact in the EU as it requires disclosure of information on hazardous substances contained in every product. The directive is on top of specific regulations such as RoHS for electronic goods, EN 71 for toys, and Regulation 1905/2004/EC for materials that come in contact with food.

For toy makers, the CPSIA/HR4040 in the US and the EU’s New Toy Safety Directive or 2009/48/EC amend existing rules substantially and impose greater restrictions on suspicious chemicals. The latter regulation limits 19 metallic elements. It also bans 55 fragrant substances and warns against a further 11 types.

Other baby and children’s products and toys must pass the standards for EN 71, CE, WEEE and EMC in the EU, ASTM-F963, CPSIA, FDA and UL in the US, AS/NZS/ISO 8124 in Australia and New Zealand, and ST2002 in Japan.

Following the US and EU’s lead, Japan, Australia and even Malaysia are modifying their existing toy safety regulations, particularly on flammability and the use of phthalates and lead.

Lithium battery exporters have to comply with UL1642 for cells and UL2054 or FCC for battery packs in addition to EMC and RoHS. Designs shipped by air are also obligated to undergo UN38.3 testing. In markets where FCC, UL and RoHS approval are not necessary, passing the UN38.3 is sufficient.

For products that come in contact with food, companies have to comply with assorted standards such as UL, CB, CE, GS, ETL, CCC, FDA and LFGB. Most EU countries recognize Germany’s LFGB because of its stricter requirements.

Aside from international regulations, suppliers have to follow domestic guidelines for a number of goods.

Garment trimming makers, for example, need to comply with three sets of requirements for cords and drawstrings to be used in children’s clothing. Issued by the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine, and Standardization Administration, the GB/T 22702-2008, 22704-2008 and 22705-2008 are based on US’ ASTM F 1816-97(2004), the UK’s BS 7907:1997 and EN 14682:2007, respectively.

In addition, some existing national standards for trimmings have been revised and now have provisions that monitor and prescribe allowable levels for harmful substances that are even lower than European regulations. The GB/T 17592, for example, keeps azo content at 20mg/kg whereas it is 30mg/kg in the EU’s EN 14362.

Likewise, the China government issued a new standard for melamine-formaldehyde products used as food containers and packaging materials. This comes after several foreign markets banned low-end models due to potential chemical leaching.

The regulation seeks to ensure safety by prohibiting the use of urea formaldehyde resin as the main material. A1 and A3-grade melamine dinnerware pieces, which contain 70 to 90 percent of this substance, tend to melt at high temperatures and may cause a health hazard.

To ensure compliance with the safety code, the government has required suppliers to obtain a production license from the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection & Quarantine.

General Wholesale – Great Tips For a Newbie in Establishing a General Wholesale Clothing Business

Many entrepreneurs online are tired of making affiliates as their major source of income. They want to venture more on a lucrative business having great benefits for them. They are now interested in establishing business online where they can sell their own products. That is why most of them engaged in having their own general wholesale clothing business. Plus, they also acquire reliable dropshipping services because this is very helpful for their business. According to them, dropshipping is the most secure and profitable option for their business. If you are not a member in this kind of business, but still you can get many help and facilities online. The advantage of a wholesale clothing business is that you have your own brands and own products to sell online. In general wholesale, you can select from few good options such as ladies wear, children’s clothing, maternity clothes, and many other more niches of clothing products. In addition to that, you can also purchase clothing accessories which will be very useful for your business plus, it can generate good income for you. So, if you are looking for a good business, then the best one to start with is establishing a general wholesale clothing business online.

First thing you need to do is storing all good information about your different clothes you are selling online. These information needs to be factual and that will greatly persuade potential customers to look and purchase your products. You can also put graphical presentation or pictures of your apparels in order to grab the interests of you customers. This is one way of greatly increasing your sale because it is a fact that once buyers like what they see, they will get it. You can also categorized your general wholesale products in to the different sub niches of wholesale clothing in order for your customers to easily look for the kinds of clothes they want to buy. Plus, if you have your own dropshippers, then it will be really easy for your business to grow.

Once you started with this, there will be no stopping to it. General wholesale business is not as easy as it looks but if you know your way in your business and follow helpful tips, surely your business will progress in no time.